DAC-End 24

DAC End 24 PCM DAC - Hi-Resolution System       


After the great results achieved by the projects DAC End 2 created in collaboration with Quanghao for the realization of the modules, we had the idea of creating a new No Oversampling project based on the AD1865 chip.
The No Oversampling DAC give a more natural sound but if you ear the Phlips DAC chips like  the TDA1541 and the TDA1543 in this configuration seem to lose details.
The AD1865N-K with passive I/V give a perfect combination, natural sound and all all the details.
This DAC chip is used also by Audio Note in all the production range.
So if you want to continue to use the CD player because you have many CD and you are not interested to play the few DSD files available on the market, this project will give you the best sonic experience.
You can also connect the PC on USB input to play Hi-Resolution PCM tracks. 
It is necessary a vacuum tube stage on output to have the standard 2Vrms but here you can find many solutions like SRPP or single ended.

The new DAC End 24 module have these features:

- separated fast shunt for the digital section
- separated fast shunt for the analog section
- Amanero module integrated to have USB input and to support 24bit 44,88,96 and192KHz PCM 
- No oversampling
- No digital filter
- 3 spdif input: coax RCA, Toslink optical and AES/EBU
- passive I/V

Quanghao sell this complete DAC module assembled including the including the Amanero module at 300$ + shipping.
It is also available the single ended vacuum stage with the r-core transformer and the chassie, the cost of the assembled version is near to 850$.



I have tested these USB-I2S interfaces and I have found very big differences in the sound:

After 3 tests in 2 different rooms, 3 different systems, with 2 my friends I can affirm that XMOS and Amanero modules are the best. 
The Amanero module sounds more open and detailed but also less solid and less smooth of XMOS module. 
The XMOS module sometimes seems more confused but it also have a larger image of the acoustic scene.
The Amanero can play also 32bit 384KHz and DSD files (SACD format) but this DAC is limited to 24bit 192KHz  PCM.


The DAC module use a dedicated power supply with shunt separated for any section of the AD1865.

All the power supply use a controlled current source and a hi-speed shunt linear regulator.

This module can be configured to select 4 different inputs with a simple selector:

Follows the spectrum at 1KHz 0dB signal, the distortion is near to zero and we have 132mVrms on DAC outputs.



This is a single ended vacuum stage output stage using 6922 tubes able to drive any amplifier with input impedance min 50Kohm.
The dedicated power supply of this output stage use a high voltage shunt regulator to have the best sonic performances.





There are many articles about no oversampling and digital filter-less DAC. 
Also this project follow the philosophy of Ryohei Kusunoki.

These dac give very natural sound very close to the playback from analog sources.
If we compare this DAC with last generation of DAC like the ES9018 you will immediately feel a more natural sound but some little details may be missing. 
I suggest to use this DAC with solid state amplifiers or single ended vacuum tubes.

by Andrea Ciuffoli - starting in the 2008


After many time lost to explore the DAC world from the DAC 1.0 to the DAC Final I have found the end of this way.

The No Oversampling DAC give a more natural sound but if you ear the TDA1541 and TDA1543 seem to lose details.

The AD1865N-K with passive I/V give a perfect combination, natural sound and all the details.

So this project is the end of my DAC projects also if someone speak very well about the AD1862.

The AD1865N-K give the better performances with a 200ohm MK132 Caddock as passive I/V.

In this configuration the output signal is too low to drive any amplifier so I have design for the AD1865N-K the better output stage.

This DAC use a single ended vaccum tube amplifier with output transformer and no interstage capacitors.

To get the max sonic performances has been used the new amorphous C-core by Lundahl.

I have tested other output stages like the LL7903 used as voltage amplifier or as I/V conv. but the results was bad if compared to this.



About wire forget the teflon ! use only stranded tinned copper wire with pvc isulator.

A very good quality stranded tinned copper wire could be buy directly from E-Z-HOOK that carries an extensive line of fine stranded and extra flexible wire.

The output transformers used in this project are the new Lundahl with amorphous C-core for the best sonic performances.

The LL1660AM/10mA has been configurated with the primaries in parallel (pin 13,16,18 e 21) to have a correct gap for a 20mA anode current.

In this configuration the LL1660AM/10mA have a primary inductance about 31Henry so the E182CC with a Ra about 2Kohm will give a ft(-3dB) = Ra / ( 2 * 3.14 * L) = 2000 / ( 2 * 3.14 * 31) = 10Hz (-3dB).

A valid alternative to the E182CC are the R5842 Raythoen and the D3A Siemens.


To get the max sonic performances and very long vacuum tube life has been choised slow turn on power supply for the filaments uning a common LM317 and a virtual battery operation power supply for the anodic using a power mosfet.

For this power supply I have used the R-CORE model R26-90 by DiyClub.Biz with primaries 2 x 115v and seconaries 0-150v(0.2A) + 2 x 0-9v (1.1A).



I have used in all the measurements the Clio system by Audiomatica with the Transit by M-Audio to use the USB port of my portable pc (instead of the PCI audio board) and with the Audiophile USB by M-Audio to have a spdif ouput.

The frequency responce is about 20 - 14000Hz at -1dB and 20000Hz at -3dB.

The output impedance is about 2200ohm with 2 secondaries in parallel and it could be about 1000ohm with all the secondaries in parallel but reducing the output level to 1Vrms.

It is very easy get a balanced outputs if it is necessary.

Follows the THD spectrum on AD1865 output.

Follows the THD spectrum of both channels at 0dB.


Bạn vui lònng nhấn vào các link dưới để tải các phần mềm

1. Phần mềm cài đặt Amanero cho máy tính Window:   

2. Phần mềm Moodeaudio 4.1 chạy Cho Pi 3 - nếu cần thiết:

3. Hướng dẫn sử dụng ES9038PRO Music Server:


Cảm ơn các bạn đã tin dùng sản phẩm!


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